Malaysia patents

知識經濟時代的來臨‧知識產權保你衣食無憂

This article was published by Sin Chew in 2009. I didn’t realise that there is a digital copy of the article on its website. It was originally written in English but translated by Sin Chew into Chinese. I am reproducing it here for the benefit of my Chinese readers. Sadly, I am unable to read or write Chinese.



知識經濟時代的來臨‧知識產權保你衣食無憂
2009-06-12

大馬是從1962年開始,由當年的Pejabat Cap Dagangan dan Jamin hak(商標與版權辦事處)管理知識產權。後來,有關辦事處於1983年在貿易與工業部旗下更名為Pejabat Dagangan dan Paten(商業與專利辦事處)。

1990年10月27日,商標與版權辦事處在國內貿易與消費人事務部旗下,再次更名為Intellectual Property Division(IPD,知識產權組),負責行政與管理大馬的版權法令、商業設計法令、電路集成板設計圖法令,和原產地理標示法令。

基於國內外知識產權業日益蓬勃發展,IPD在2002年馬來西亞知識產權機構法令生效下,成為了一家公司,並易名為馬來西亞知識產權機構(IPCM),隨後於2005年3月3日的第一屆全國知識產權日上,宣佈公司縮略名為MyIPO。

能注冊擁有權的知識產權包括了:專利(Patents)、商標(Trade Marks)、工業設計(Industrial Designs)、原產地理標示(Geographical Indications)、版權(Copyright)和電路集成板設計圖(Layout-Design of Integrated Circuits)。
欲知詳情,請瀏覽http://www.myipo.gov.my網站。

知識產權,牽涉的範圍非常廣闊,也相當復雜。但於Lee Hishammuddin Allen &Gledhill律師樓執業,專門處理知識產權案子的馮正良律師表示,大馬發生最多的是商標爭奪案子,較少涉及版權和專利的案子。

他指出,很多的知識產權案子,通常都涉及很多非常復雜且十分專業的技術過程,普通人很難去瞭解整個審判過程。

本地知識產權爭奪案例
為了讓讀者更瞭解知識產權的重要性,馮正良律師為讀者舉例了數起本地案子。

McCurry Restaurant(KL)Sdn Bhd對壘McDonald’s Corporation
麥當勞欲阻止本地一家以快餐店概念賣馬來西亞和印度料理如咖哩魚頭、Briyani飯、椰漿飯、印度煎餅、拉茶的McCurry Restaurant(KL)Sdn Bhd用Mc名字。
有關餐廳提出的理由是:McCurry是Malaysia Chicken Curry的縮略語。麥當勞打到高庭成功取得禁令,禁止McCurry餐廳繼續使用Mc這個字眼。餐廳後來上訴,上訴庭認為高庭的判決不正確,並允許餐廳繼續使用McCurry名字。上訴庭判決的部份根據理由(當然還有很多詳細的理由)包括了:
●McCurry餐廳的招牌,是紅底上寫著白色和灰色Restoran McCurry,並附上一幅雙手豎起拇指的母雞圖,還有Malaysian Chicken Curry的字眼。這家餐廳很清楚地表現了它的業務性質,而且非常明顯地與麥當勞有所不同。
●McCurry餐廳的菜單上,並沒任何帶有Mc字眼的食物。
●兩家餐廳賣的食物並不相同,McCurry餐廳賣的主要是印度食物,而麥當勞賣的是快餐。
●還有證據證明光顧兩家餐廳的顧客群,擁有不同的背景和年齡層。光顧McCurry餐廳者,大多數是成年人和老人家,而光顧麥當勞的大部份是青少年和兒童。
(McCurry餐廳網站http://www.mccurryrecipe.com上,刊載了此宗打了5年的案子。)

Meidi-ya Ltd&Anor對壘Meidi(M)Sdn Bhd
聯邦法院維持上訴庭的判決,在一項本地公司與日本公司爭奪MEIDI-YA商標擁有權案子上,本地公司占上風。上訴庭之前認為本地公司第一次在馬來西亞使用有關商標,因而有權申請商標的擁有權。上訴庭也認為,雖然有關商標曾在日本和其它國家使用,但卻無所謂,因為“在很多情況下,商標法令是非常地緣性的”。
日本公司隨後上訴到聯邦法院。在一項許可申請中,有關外商必須證明此項上訴將涉及“第一次使用”的通用原則,或未來可繼續爭議的“重要性”的判決,然而,聯邦法院的判決顯然是以公共利益為根據。
經過深思熟慮後,聯邦法院決定不改變上訴庭認為外商不是第一次在馬來西亞使用有關商標的判決,因而駁回了外商的上訴申請。
聯邦法院的這項裁決,再次維護了一項商標的地緣性。儘管如此,聯邦法院並無澄清,沒有在大馬使用的著名外國商標,在大馬是否受到保護。由此可見,大馬的立場是,誰先在大馬使用商標,誰就是商標的擁有者,而不管有關商標在外國是否著名。

McLaren International Ltd對壘Lim Yat Meen
這起案子,著名的F1賽車隊McLaren International Ltd申請要求撤銷Lim Yat Meen注冊的McLaren名字。此項注冊是在“衣服類物品,包括靴、鞋子和涼鞋”的第25級(Class25)項目下注冊。賽車隊提出的數項理由中包括了:
(一)此項注冊會對公眾和有關商標引起混淆;
(二)Lim Yat Meen不是有關商標的擁有者。
Lim Yat Meen表示他自1992年開始,就使用McLaren這個名字了生產鞋子,而且他並不知道有個叫McLaren的F1賽車隊,而當年,McLaren International Ltd也沒有在大馬設立任何公司。
McLaren International Ltd在高庭失敗了,就到上訴庭去上訴。上訴庭駁回了有關上訴,並認為既然McLaren International Ltd在Lim Yat Meen注冊這名字前,並無在大馬使用有關名字,因此Lim Yat Meen有權處理他注冊的有關名字。
上訴庭認為,Lim Yat Meen根本不必做些不實際的行動,如到全世界去搜查或詢問有關商標名字的擁有者是否要來大馬注冊。一名奉公守法的業主,不必因為某些外國公司提出無理的商標要求,就回避或停止業務。

Microsoft Corporation對壘Yong Wai Hong
微軟曾經向上訴庭針對高庭當場駁回微軟一項申請的判決而提出上訴。微軟發現了一個售賣盜版微軟軟件的網站,並向國內貿易與消費人部投訴,進而使有關部門執法部採取了取締行動。行動中還發現了數個用來生產盜版軟件光碟的儀器,還在被告人名字注冊的汽車內,發現了一些盜版軟件光碟。微軟採取多項行動,包括對被告提出禁令要求。上訴庭批准了微軟的上訴,並把被告帶入審訊程序。

IEV International Pty Limited對壘Sadacharamani a/l Govindasamy
法庭撤銷了被告人得到的兩項專利注冊,因為其中一項主要原因是,那些專利以前就被注冊了。被告人其實是原告人的市場與契約經理,有機會接觸生產設計圖、特別的安裝程序及指南等資料。獲得專利注冊時,被告人被指濫用文件和機密資訊。被告人是在離職7個月之後,才提出申請注冊有關的專利。

知識產權問答錄(版權Copyright):
問:大馬的哪項法令是保護版權的?
答:1987年版權法令(Copyright Act 1987)。
問:哪些作品受到版權法令的保護?
答:文學作品(文字創作)、音樂作品、藝術作品、電影、錄音、廣播,和各種衍生物。
問:馬來西亞有版權注冊系統嗎?
答:所有創作一出現,即自動收到保護,不必經過任何注冊機制。
問:版權保護期限是多久?
答:文學、音樂和藝術作品保護期限是創作者有生之年,加上死後的50年。錄音、電影和廣播的保護期限是從作品第一次發佈年算起的50年,至於出版作品則是從作品第一次發佈年算起的50年。
問:創作者怎樣證明擁有創作品的版權?
答:有兩個方法:第一,根據1960年宣誓法令下宣誓,第二,把有關創作品置入密封的信封內,通過郵局寄回給自己的地址。(收到有郵戳印的那封密封信後,千萬別開封,這樣以後才能證明在郵戳日期當時,有關創作品已經出現了,而且附有創作者的名字和地址。)
問:誰才合法擁有版權?
答:版權合法擁有者,是根據以下情況而定:
1.創作品是在一項雇用合約下創作的:雇主擁有版權。
2.創作品是在一項雇用合約下創作的:創作者擁有版權。
3.委托創作品:出錢委托者擁有有關創作品的版權。
問:私人及自用(private and domestic use)是甚麼意思?
答:任何人在其控制下或範圍內,擁有3份或以下的侵權物品。

知識產權問答錄(專利Patents):

問:申請專利保護前可否查詢發明是否獨一無二的創新?
答:當然可以。申請專利前,可親臨MyIPO的公共搜查室查閱已注冊的專利,或到網站的專利與商標管理系統(PANTAS)去查閱以前的專利注冊文件。
問:在申請注冊專利前就已公佈的專利是否獲得保護?
答:可以,但必須在專利公佈後的12個月內呈交申請。
問:專利申請注冊費用是多少錢?
答:一項專利的申請注冊費是1050令吉,應用小發明的費用是900令吉。
問:專利申請的保密期是多久?
答:全部專利申請的保密期為18個月,隨後將公開有關專利讓公眾評審。
問:未獲得專利權,是否可採取法律行動對方仿冒者?
答:專利申請仍在Pending(處理)期間,法庭無法採取行動。一旦獲得專利注冊,即可採取行動,而且專利期是從呈交申請注冊日開始計算的。
問:怎樣向其它國家申請注冊專利?
答:可到個別國家申請,或通過世界知識產權組織(WIPO)的PCT呈交一分申請,即可獲得此組織會員國的保護。

■更多詳情,請瀏覽http://www.myipo.gov.my網站

後記:
知識產權是相當復雜及非常殘酷的,如果創作者不好好地自我保護,別人很容易就搶去你辛苦經營多年的成果。不管生意大小,都要保護知識產權。生意做得越大,更要自我保護。即使我這篇小小文章,也是受到版權法令保護的,他人非經授權,不得抄襲。
(星洲日報/副刊‧報導:李昱龍)

Protecting your Intellectual Property Rights in Malaysia

This article was published in the December 2012 issue of The Bridge, a quarterly magazine published by the Malaysia Canada Business Council.


In this article, Mr. Foong Cheng Leong briefly sets out the intellectual property rights protected in Malaysia.

Foong Cheng Leong is an Advocate and Solicitor of the High Court of Malaya and also a registered Malaysian trade mark, industrial designs and patent agent. He is also the co-Chairman of the Kuala Lumpur Bar Information Technology Committee and a member of the Malaysian Bar Council Intellectual Property Committee.

The recognition of intellectual property rights in Malaysia started as early as the 1800s during the Straits Settlement days. As the years go by, laws to protect intellectual property rights were expanded. Malaysian intellectual property laws are fairly similar with the laws of other Commonwealth countries and more or less in accordance with international practice.

Trade Mark

A trade mark is an important asset for all businesses. It consists of a device, brand, heading, label, ticket, name, signature, word, letter, numeral or any combination thereof. It provides their owners with the legal right to prevent others from using an identical or confusingly similar mark.

In Malaysia, the laws that govern trade mark rights can be found under the Trade Marks Act 1976 and Trade Marks Regulations 1997. Trade mark proprietors can choose to protect their marks through the process of registration. This gives the registered proprietors exclusive right over the trade marks thus allowing them to take legal action against anyone who infringes their rights.

The trade mark registration process is administered by the Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (also known as MyIPO. Website at www.myipo.gov.my ). Prior to filing an application, an applicant is advised to conduct a search at the Trade Mark Register to determine whether there are any identical or similar trade marks that were filed. Such search would be useful to the applicant to determine whether to use or file their trade mark in Malaysia.

Further, when deciding whether to register a mark in Malaysia, one must ensure that the mark is distinctive. A distinctive mark means a mark that is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of the proprietor from other traders.

The registration process in Malaysia normally takes about 1 to 2 years. Upon registration, the proprietor will be issued a Certificate of Registration valid for ten (10) years and it is renewable every ten (10) years.

Copyright

Copyright protects various type of works such as literacy works which covers novel, lyrics, articles, computer program and so on; dramatic works such as dance choreography; artistic works such as paintings, photographs or any logos, drawings; musical works; recordings; broadcasts and finally, layouts. However, it does not cover procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such. The law regarding copyright protection in Malaysia can be found under the Copyright Act 1987.

Effective from 1 June 2012, it is possible to make a notification of copyright under the Copyright Act 1987 and Copyright (Voluntary Notification) Regulations 2012 with MyIPO. A notification of copyright can be made by the author of a work, the owner of the copyright in a work, an assignee of the copyright or a licensee of an interest in the copyright.

The notification of copyright will be prima facie evidence of copyright and is useful when dealing with copyright infringement proceedings.

Industrial Designs

Industrial designs right is an intangible right to the features of shape, configuration, pattern or ornament applied to an article by any industrial process or means, being features which in the finished article appeal to and are judged by the eye. Industrial designs law is governed by the Industrial Designs Act 1996 and Industrial Designs Regulations 1999 in Malaysia.

However, industrial design does not include the method of construction of the device or features of shape or configuration of an article which are (1) dictated solely by the function which the article has to perform, or (2) dependent upon the appearance of another article of which the article is intended by the designer to form an integral part.

An applicant may file an application to protect their rights with MyIPO. It must be highlighted that the applicant must file their industrial design first before they could disclose the same e.g by way of sale to the public failing which the design will not be considered as new.

A registered industrial design is given an initial protection period of 5 years from the date of filing and is renewable for a further two consecutive terms of 5 years each.

Patents

Patents are grants given to owners by the government which give the owner an exclusive right over the invention that they have created. Invention can cover product or processes. The protection also gives the owner the exclusive right to stop others from manufacturing, using and/or selling the owner’s invention in Malaysia without the owner’s consent or permission.

For the invention to be patentable, it needs to be new, involves inventive steps and industrially applicable. A “minor invention” can also be as an utility innovation granted provided that it is new and industrially applicable.

A patent and utility innovation can be protected by filing an application with MyIPO. A patent is protected twenty (20) years from the date of filing and a utility innovation is protected with an initial period of ten (10) years and is renewable for a two consecutive terms of five (5) years each.

Malaysia has acceded to the Patent Cooperation Treaty thus the PCT international application can be filed at MyIPO where MyIPO is acting as the Receiving Office for the international filing of PCT application.

Geographic Indications

A geographical indication helps to indicate the geographical origin of certain goods and possess unique qualities or characteristics that essentially represent the good’s place of origin. Basically, it points to the place where the goods or the characteristics of the goods are originated from. In Malaysia, “Sabah Tea’, ‘Tenom Coffee” and “Borneo Virgin Coconut Oil’ are registered geographical indication.

Only producers carrying on their activity in the geographical area specified in the Register shall have the right to use a registered geographical indication in the course of trade. The right of use be in respect of the products specified in the Register in accordance to the qualify, reputation or characteristic specified in the Register.

The current law in Malaysia that governs the protection of geographical indications can be found under Geographical Indications Regulations 2001.

Applicant can register geographic indications with the MyIPO. However, if the geographic indications are not found in Malaysia, then an agent shall be appointed in Malaysia. A registered geographical indication is given ten (10) years of protection from the date of filling and is renewable for every ten (10) years.

Confidential Information

Confidential information in this context usually means any information that is kept private and is not disclosed to the public. For examples, any new product design, trade secrets, software, business information, marketing strategy and so on.

There is no formal registration process for confidential information in Malaysia. It is possible to sue parties for breach of confidence.

Conclusion

All businesses that wish to invest or trade in Malaysia should consider registered their rights in Malaysia. As Intellectual Property rights are generally territorial, one should take all steps to secure their rights before investing or trading. For example, if a foreign entity discovers that a local company is trading in the same trade mark as the former and earlier than the former in Malaysia, the former should consider using another trade mark or purchase the said trade mark from the latter provided that there is no element of misappropriation.

The author would like to acknowledge Lim Chia Ann for her assistance in preparing this article.

Let’s Get hIP 2012

I will be moderating this talk on recent substantive changes in the arena of Intellectual Property (“IP”) legislation and case law, which include “Safe Harbour” provisions, registration of works and its impact on protection and enforcement, expedited registration process, new mechanisms in enforcing a Trade Description Order (“TDO”), introduction/revisions to procedural steps in protection of registrable IP rights, and many others.


Click for large image

B.Braun Melsungen AG & Anor v Meds Sdn Bhd & Ors

Kuala Lumpur High Court Suit No. D – 22IP – 23 – 2011

Patent infringement – interlocutory injunction – whether claim of invalidation is a serious issue to be tried – whether balance of convenience lies on the Plaintiff due to damage to goodwill and reputation – whether the Defendants, being new in the market and having a small market share, should be restrained.

Download: [Judgement]

Income Tax (Deduction for Expenditure on Registration of Patent and Trade Mark) Rules 2009 [P.U. (A) 418/2009]

First published on 18 January 2010

From the year of assessment of 2010 until the year of assessment of 2014, certain companies and enterprises are able to claim tax deduction for fees or payments made to register patents and/or to register trade marks under the Malaysian Patents Act 1983 and Malaysian Trade Marks Act 1976 respectively.

The companies and enterprises that are eligible for such deduction are as follows:

(a) A company which has a paid-up capital in respect of ordinary share of RM2.5 million and less at the beginning of the basic period for a year of assessment but shall not include:

(i) A company where 50% of its paid up capital in respect of ordinary share of the company is directly or indirectly owned by a related company;

(ii) A company where 50% of the paid-up capital in respect of ordinary shares of a related company is directly or indirectly owned by the first mentioned company; and

(iii) A company where 50% of the paid-up capital in respect of ordinary shares of a company and a related company is directly or indirectly owned by another company.

(b) An enterprise in the manufacturing industry, manufacturing related services industry and agro-based industry, resident in Malaysia, which at the end of the basis period for a year of assessment-

(i) has not more than 150 full-time employees; or
(ii) has achieved annual sales of not more than RM25 million ringgit.

(c) An enterprise in the services industries, primary agriculture, information and communications technology industry, resident in Malaysia, which at the end of the basis period for a year of assessment:

(i) has not more than 50 full-time employees; or
(ii) has achieved annual sales of not more than RM5 million.

Download: [ Income Tax (Deduction for Expenditure on Registration of Patent and Trade Mark) Rules 2009]

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